Shortly before President Biden and China’s leader, Xi Jinping, met for a virtual summit this week, the United States sent seven Chinese nationals who had been convicted of crimes back to China, and Beijing lifted an exit ban on an American citizen who had been blocked from leaving for four years.
One of the Chinese nationals who was repatriated was a woman who had been convicted in 2019 of trespassing after she had entered former President Donald J. Trump’s Mar-a-Lago resort with a cache of electronics, according to a senior administration official. The official spoke on condition of anonymity to discuss sensitive diplomatic affairs.
China’s foreign ministry did not immediately respond to a request for comment.
The moves came less than two months after the United States reached an agreement to allow Meng Wanzhou, a senior executive at the Chinese tech giant Huawei, to return home after a nearly three-year diplomatic standoff. China reciprocated within hours, releasing two Canadians whom it had held since shortly after Ms. Meng was arrested in Canada.
Two American siblings who had been blocked from leaving China for more than three years were also allowed to return to the United States. The siblings — Victor Liu, a student at Georgetown University, and Cynthia Liu, a consultant at McKinsey & Company — had never been accused of wrongdoing in China. But their father, Liu Changming, a former executive at a Chinese bank, was wanted by the Chinese police for his role in a fraud case.
The exit ban on Mr. Liu’s children was seen as a way to pressure Mr. Liu to return to China and turn himself in.
The series of diplomatic actions appeared to have been intended to cool tensions between the two governments, which have become increasingly confrontational on trade, technology, human rights, the future of Taiwan and other issues. At their video summit this week, Mr. Biden and Mr. Xi reached no breakthrough accords, agreeing only on the need to prevent frictions from escalating into all-out conflict.
The American who was allowed to leave China this month, Daniel Hsu, has not been convicted of any crimes in China. Mr. Hsu told The Associated Press last year that the Chinese authorities blocked him and his wife from returning to their home in Washington State in August 2017, in what Mr. Hsu said was an apparent attempt to convince his father to return to China and face embezzlement charges. Mr. Hsu’s father, Xu Weiming, denies the charges, The A.P. reported.
Mr. Hsu’s return to the United States was reported earlier by Reuters.
The State Department has been warning Americans who are considering travel to China of the risk of “arbitrary detention and exit bans.” In most cases, the department says, U.S. citizens only become aware of an exit ban when they try to leave China.
One of the Chinese nationals whom the United States sent back to China last Friday is Yujing Zhang, a businesswoman who talked her way into Mr. Trump’s Mar-a-Lago club in 2019. After Ms. Zhang was questioned by the Secret Service, agents found that she was carrying four cellphones, a laptop and an external hard drive. They found an additional trove of gear in her room in a different hotel.
Understand U.S.-China Relations
A tense era in U.S.-China ties. The two powers are profoundly at odds as they jockey for influence beyond their own shores, compete in technology and maneuver for military advantages. Here’s what to know about the main fronts in U.S.-China relations:
Pacific dominance. As China has built up its military presence, the U.S. has sought to widen its alliances in the region. A major potential flash point is Taiwan, the democratic island that the Communist Party regards as Chinese territory. Should the U.S. intervene there, it could reshape the regional order.
Trade. The trade war started by the Trump administration is technically on pause. But the Biden administration has continued to protest China’s economic policies and impose tariffs on Chinese goods, signaling no thaw in trade relations.
Technology. Internet giants have mostly been shut out of China, but plenty of U.S. tech companies still do big business there, raising cybersecurity concerns in Washington. Mr. Xi has said China needs to achieve technological “self-reliance.”
Human rights. Under Mr. Xi, China’s confrontations with the U.S. over values and freedoms have become more frequent, including standoffs over Beijing’s crackdown on pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong and mass detentions of Muslims in Xinjiang.
World leadership. China’s leaders see signs of American decline everywhere and they want a bigger voice in global leadership, seeking a greater role in Western-dominated institutions and courting allies that share their frustration with the West.
The incident exposed holes in Mr. Trump’s security apparatus. But Ms. Zhang’s trial in Fort Lauderdale, at the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida, did not attempt to address whether she had been engaging in espionage.
The Miami Herald reported this month that Ms. Zhang finished serving her eight-month sentence in late 2019 but was held in immigration custody for much longer thereafter because of “deportation delays” related to the coronavirus pandemic.
China’s foreign ministry this week also announced the repatriation from the United States of Xu Guojun, a former bank executive who had fled China two decades ago after being accused of corruption and embezzlement. A federal jury in Las Vegas found Mr. Xu guilty of conspiracy charges in 2008.
The Chinese foreign ministry hailed Mr. Xu’s return to China as a “major achievement” in the authorities’ 20-year pursuit of justice in the case.