The End of ‘Fight Club’ Was Cut in China. The Pattern Goes Back Decades.
When viewers watch “Fight Club” on a popular Chinese streaming platform, most of the film looks exactly as it did when it was released in 1999 — except for the apocalyptic ending.
Instead of a successful plot to destroy a series of buildings, the Chinese version of the cult classic starring Brad Pitt and Edward Norton ends with a note to viewers saying that the police “rapidly figured out the whole plan and arrested all criminals, successfully preventing the bomb from exploding.”
As for Mr. Pitt’s character, the note says, he was sent to an asylum and later discharged. (Never mind that the character is actually a figment of Mr. Norton’s character’s imagination.)
The censored ending was discovered recently by fans in China who watched it on a streaming platform owned by Tencent, a giant Chinese entertainment company. It has lead to criticism from Human Rights Watch and chatter on social media in China and the United States.
“This is SUPER wonderful! Everyone gets a happy ending in China!” Chuck Palahniuk, the writer whose 1996 novel inspired the film, wrote sarcastically on Twitter. But he also said in an interview with TMZ on Wednesday that the censored ending was closer to the ending of his book, in which the bomb malfunctions and the narrator wakes up in a mental hospital after shooting himself.
It is unclear whether the changes to the film’s Chinese edition were the result of self-censorship, a government order or a combination of the two. The film’sproduction company, based in Los Angeles, did not respond to requests for comment, and its Chinese distributor declined to comment.
But this much is clear: “Fight Club” is not the first movie where the version made for the Chinese mainland audience differed from the original. Over the years, a number of Western movies and television shows — including “Men in Black 3,” “Cloud Atlas” and “Pirates of the Caribbean” — have been altered before they were shown to local audiences.
A ‘reluctant compromise’
To some extent, recent censorship echoes how the mainland Chinese authorities once demanded changes to movies from Hong Kong, the former British colony that was promised a high degree of autonomy when it returned to Chinese sovereignty in 1997.
Hong Kong’s golden age of cinema included Bruce Lee kung fu films and Wong Kar-wai dramas, and, for years, local production companies there would export films to Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia and other countries in the region.
But when those international sales were battered by a 1997 financial crisis in East Asia, Hong Kong production houses began looking to mainland China as their main source of overseas revenue. As a price of admission, they often agreed to produce alternate versions of their movies to suit local censorship requirements.
“When exploitation of the new mainland market becomes a matter of life and death, such a reluctant compromise with market entry limitations is totally understandable as a measure of expediency,” the scholar Hilary Hongjin He wrote in a 2010 study of Hong Kong cinema in the Chinese mainland.
An early example of such censorship is “The Inescapable Snare,” a re-edited version of “Naked Ambition,” a 2003 Hong Kong film about the local sex industry. The mainland version adds a plot twist in which Hong Kong police officers team up with Beijing’s Ministry of Public Security to crack down on pornography and prostitution.
Other Hong Kong films were edited for audiences in Southeast Asia, a region where governments and film audiences tend to be socially conservative. Notably, the directors of “Infernal Affairs,” a 2002 crime drama, produced an alternate version for the Malaysian market in which a criminal who has infiltrated the Hong Kong Police Force is apprehended after murdering an undercover officer.
“Liu Jianming, we have found out that you are a spy for the mafia,” a policeman tells the criminal in the alternate ending, moments after Liu kills the undercover officer in the elevator of an office tower. “You are arrested.”
In the original version, Liu rides the elevator to the ground floor and leaves the building.
Today, Hong Kong’s world-famous film scene has become the latest form of expression to be censored, since Beijing imposed a national security law on the territory in 2020. The Hong Kong government has been cracking down on documentaries and independent productions that it fears could glamorize the pro-democracy protests that roiled the city in 2019.
Five Movies to Watch This Winter
1. “The Power of the Dog”: Benedict Cumberbatch is earning high praise for his performance in Jane Campion’s new psychodrama. Here’s what it took for the actor to become a seething alpha-male cowboy.
2. “Don’t Look Up” : Meryl Streep plays a self-centered scoundrel in Adam McKay’s apocalyptic satire. She turned to the “Real Housewives” franchise for inspiration.
3. “King Richard”: Aunjanue Ellis, who plays Venus and Serena Williams’s mother in the biopic, shares how she turned the supporting role into a talker.
4. “Tick, Tick … Boom!”: Lin-Manuel Miranda’s directorial debut is an adaptation of a show by Jonathan Larson, creator of “Rent.” This guide can help you unpack its many layers.
5. “The Tragedy of Macbeth”: Several upcoming movies are in black and white, including Joel Coen’s new spin on Shakespeare’s “Macbeth.”
As for Chinese-language films that are shown on the mainland, they now tend to have just one version for both the domestic and international market, even if they are produced in Hong Kong, said Kevin Ma, the founder of Asia in Cinema, a news site for the regional industry. They also tend to end either with villains getting caught, he said, or with a written coda that praises the benefits of law and order.
As for foreign films that are imported to China, some disappear from local streaming platforms without explanation. In many other cases, Mr. Ma said, it is common for local distributors to tone down movies through relatively minor cuts. For example, the Chinese version of “Logan,” a 2017 blockbuster in the X-Men series starring Hugh Jackman, has less violence than the original.
Other cuts are more blatant. The Chinese version of “Bohemian Rhapsody,” the 2018 Queen biopic, cut references to the singer Freddie Mercury’s sexuality — including a crucial scene in which he tells his fiancée that he is not straight, and another in which his male lover is introduced.
A new approach
The Chinese version of “Fight Club” is notable, Mr. Ma said, because it carries both strategic cuts and the same kind of pro-government written codas that are typically reserved only for Chinese-language films.
“Cutting is normal, but adding a new ending for foreign films? That’s new for me,” he said.
Mr. Ma said it would be interesting to know whether the film’s American production company discussed censorship in the contract when it sold the distribution rights in China. New Regency, the Los Angeles-based company that produced “Fight Club,” did not immediately respond to requests for comment on Thursday.
A spokeswoman for Tencent Video, the Chinese streaming platform that hosts the censored version of “Fight Club,” declined to comment when reached by telephone on Thursday. So did a spokeswoman for Pacific Audio and Video, the film’s Chinese distributor.
At least one other foreign movie was shown in China with both strategic cuts and a written coda.
In the original ending of “Lord of War,” a 2005 Hollywood blockbuster in which a Ukrainian arms dealer played by Nicolas Cage is chased by an Interpol agent, his character is released from prison and returns to selling arms.
But the Chinese version ends with Mr. Cage’s character, Yuri Orlov, still incarcerated.
“Yuri Orlov confessed all the crimes officially charged against him in court, and was sentenced to life imprisonment in the end,” a coda reads.
Austin Ramzy contributed reporting, and Li You contributed research.